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Thread: Jeanne d'arc, maid of orleans: Deliverer of france

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    Default Jeanne d'arc, maid of orleans: Deliverer of france

    Here follows the Sentence of Excommunication, [the introductory part being word for word the same as the previous sentence, read on May 24th, up to the words, "We, the Judges, say and decree"; after which follows:]

    . . . that you have been on the subject of thy pretended divine revelations and apparitions lying, seducing, pernicious, presumptuous, lightly believing, rash, superstitious, a divineress and blasphemer towards God and the Saints, a despiser of God Himself in His Sacraments; a prevaricator of the Divine Law, of sacred doctrine and of ecclesiastical sanctions; seditious, cruel, apostate, schismatic, erring on many points of our Faith, and by all these means rashly guilty towards God and Holy Church. And also, because that often, very often, not only by Us on Our part but by Doctors and Masters learned and expert, full of zeal for the salvation of thy soul, you have been duly and sufficiently warned to amend, to correct thyself and to submit to the disposal, decision, and correction of Holy Mother Church, which you have not willed, and have always obstinately refused to do, having even expressly and many times refused to submit thyself to our Lord the Pope and to the General Council; for these causes, as hardened and obstinate in thy crimes, excesses and errors, WE DECLARE THEE OF RIGHT EXCOMMUNICATE AND HERETIC; and after your errors have been destroyed in a public preaching, We declare that you must be abandoned and that We do abandon thee to the secular authority, as a member of Satan, separate from the Church, infected with the leprosy of heresy, in order that you may not corrupt also the other members of Christ; praying this same power, that, as concerns death and the mutilation of the limbs, it may be pleased to moderate its judgment; and if true signs of penitence should appear in thee, that the Sacrament of Penance may be administered to thee.
    Everything in my Spiritual history lives and breathes in me, I am unique, I am special,
    and that is what is making me strong.

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    Default Re: Jeanne d'arc, maid of orleans: Deliverer of france

    Jeanne d’Arc

    A peasant girl who saved the kingdom of France from English domination.

    "When I was thirteen, I had a voice from God to help me to govern myself. The first time, I was terrified. The voice came to me about noon: it was summer, and I was in my father’s garden….I saw it many times before I knew it was Saint Michael….He was not alone, but duly attended by heavenly angels….He told me Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret would come to me, and I must follow their counsel; that they were appointed to guide and counsel me in what I had to do, and that I must believe what they would tell me, for it was at our Lord’s command." In Her Own Words, p. 5-6

    Joan continually professed counsel and protection from three voices guiding her in the mission to free her country from occupation: Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Catherine of Alexandria and Saint Margaret, sometimes called Marina. Although not often mentioned, Joan also reported being visited by Saint Gabriel.

    Archangel Michael was the first to appear to young Joan when she was in her thirteenth year. He told Joan that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret would soon follow. She was to obey their instruction. Whereas Archangel Michael was brilliant and bold, her descriptions of Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret were of gentle comforters.

    The female saints guided her through the next four years of her childhood, instructing her on proper ways to govern herself. They primed her, instilling virtues she would need for a greater mission, which she did not fully comprehend at the time.

    When Joan turned seventeen, the guidance from her voices changed. Saint Michael visited more often, outlining a plan which involved the young girl liberating her country. Joan's response showed her attempt to make sense of what she was being told to do: "And I answered the Voice that I was a poor girl who knew nothing of riding and warfare." In Her Own Words, p. 7.

    Joan eventually came to this understanding: "Since God had commanded me to go, I must do it. And since God had commanded it, I would have gone." In Her Own Words, p. 11


    sketch_by_clement_de_fauquembergue_1429.jpgFinally in April of 1429, given command of a French army she quickly rounted the English army besieging Orléans, chased the English out of the Loire valley and by July had delivered Reims from the English so that Charles could be crowned king (Charles VII) in this traditional coronation site.

    "You Englishmen, who have no right in this Kingdom of France, the King of Heaven sends you word and warning, by me Jehanne the Maid, to abandon your forts and depart into your own country, or I will raise such a war-cry against you as shall be remembered forever. And this I write to you for the third and last time, nor shall I write further." In Her Own Words, p. 35

    Jeanne d’Arc entered history during the spring of 1429. In obedience to what she said was the command of God, Jeanne inspired the Dauphin’s armies in a series of stunning military victories which lifted the siege of Orleans and destroyed a large percentage of the remaining English forces at the battle of Patay, reversing the course of the Hundred Years’ War. The Dauphin – Charles VII – was crowned a few months later at Reims.

    But now events began to move against her. She continued to try to rout the English from France–even though Charles himself seemed to have little appetite for such doings. When in September she moved against the English in Paris she was wounded and the effort failed. Meanwhile Charles made a truce with his enemies (and England’s ally) the Burgundians.

    But the next spring (1430) she took up arms again–only to be captured by the Burgundians in an effort to rally the French at Compiègne against an English-Burgundian assault on that town. She was sold by her captor to the English. She was then turned over to a French ecclesiastical court (with strong pro-English sentiments) in Rouen to be tried as a witch. After a lengthy trial she was found guilty of sorcery and heresy and sentenced to death.

    "Bishop, it is by you that I die!"

    He was not shamed, not touched; but said, smoothly:

    "Ah, be patient, Joan. You die because you have not kept your promise, but have returned to your sins."

    "Alas," she said, "if you had put me in the Church's prison, and given me right and proper keepers, as you promised, this would not have happened. And for this I summon you to answer before God!"

    On May 30, 1431 she was burned at the stake as a witch, only 19 years old.


    Trial of Nullification 1455

    Also known as The Nullification or Rehabilitation Trail

    Jeanne’s family bring the suit before the Pope.

    Two months after the election of Pope Calixtus III, Isabelle Romée and her two sons appealed for justice concerning Jeanne’s case. The Pope authorized the investigation and appointed the judges.

    Jeanne’s mother, Isabelle Romée:

    “I had a daughter born in lawful wedlock who grew up amid the fields and pastures. I had her baptized and confirmed and brought her up in the fear of God.


    Because the people suffered so much, she had a great compassion for them in her heart and despite her youth she would fast and pray for them with great devotion and fervor. She never thought, spoke or did anything against the faith. Certain enemies had her arraigned in a religious trial.

    Despite her disclaimers and appeals, both tacit and expressed, and without any help given to her defense, she was put through a perfidious, violent, iniquitous and sinful trial. The judges condemned her falsely, damnably and criminally, and put her to death in a cruel manner by fire.

    For the damnation of their souls and in notorious, infamous and irreparable loss to me, Isabelle, and mine… I demand that her name be restored.”

    The Case was solemnly opened on November 7th, 1455, in the Church of Notre Dame at Paris.

    The appellate process included clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analyzed testimony from some 115 witnesses, most of whom had more or less unanimously testified to her purity, integrity and courage. The witnesses included many of the tribunal members who had placed her on trial; a couple dozen of the villagers who had known her during her childhood; a number of the soldiers who had served during her campaigns; citizens of Orleans who had met her during the lifting of the siege; and many others who provided vivid and emotional details of Jeanne’s life. Some of the former tribunal members were less forthcoming under examination, repeatedly claiming not to remember the details of the 1431 proceedings, especially regarding whether Jeanne had been tortured. After the final depositions had been taken and the theologians had given their verdicts, Inquisitor Bréhal drew up his final analysis in June 1456, which described Jeanne as a martyr and implicated the late Pierre Cauchon with heresy for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta.

    In sum, the rehabilitation trial exposed the corruption and malice evident in the procedures and verdicts of the condemnation. The rehabilitation explicitly “assumed the best” about Jeanne. The freedom of God to demonstrate power through a weak and humble servant was a key argument. Bréhal cited Paul in the New Testament, “God chose what is foolish in the world to shame the wise, God chose what is weak in the world to shame the strong,” (1 Corinthians 2: 27).

    The court declared her innocent on 7 July 1456 by annulling her sentence. They declared that Jeanne had been tried as a result of ‘false articles of accusation’. Those articles and Cauchon’s sentence were to be torn out of a copy of the proceedings and burnt by the public executioner at Rouen. The Archbishop of Rheims read out the appellate court’s verdict: “In consideration of the request of the d’Arc family against the Bishop of Beauvais, the promoter of criminal proceedings, and the inquisitor of Rouen… in consideration of the facts…. We, in session of our court and having God only before our eyes, say, pronounce, decree and declare that the said trial and sentence (of condemnation) being tainted with fraud (dolus malus), calumny, iniquity and contradiction, and manifest errors of fact and of law… to have been and to be null, invalid, worthless, without effect and annihilated… We proclaim that Jeanne did not contract any taint of infamy and that she shall be and is washed clean of such”.

    Jeanne’s elderly mother lived to see the final verdict announced, and was present when the city of Orleans celebrated the event by giving a banquet for Inquisitor Bréhal on 27 July 1456. Although Isabelle’s request for punishment against the tribunal members did not materialize, nonetheless the appellate verdict cleared her daughter of the charges that had hung over her name for twenty-five years.

    1425
    Jeanne had visions of angels or god as a child, telling her to fightin the war for France.
    1429, April
    Only 17 and sent as a captain to Orleans where she and her army captured the city.
    1429, July 18
    Jeanne returned home to see Charles VII crowned as the new king of France.
    1430
    Jeanne conducteda military operation against the English at Compiegne, but was captured by Burgundian Soldiers who sold her to the English, where they conducted a witch trial.
    1431, May 30
    Jeanne was burned at the stake in Rouen marketplace for the crime of witchcraft and fraud, nineteen years old.

    Awards/Honors/Formal Recognition
    After her death, she was considered to be a French National Heroine. Jeanne became a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.

    Beatified 1909 by Pope Saint Pius X.
    Canonized as a saint 1920 by Pope Benedict XV.

    Declared patroness of France 1922.

    Saint Jeanne d’Arc, The Maid of Orleans is a recognized Saint of the Roman Catholic Church. Although she was excommunicated and burned at the stake for heresy by local officials in 1431, central Church officials would later nullify her excommunication, declaring her a martyr unjustly executed for a secular vendetta. Her legend would grow from there, leading to her beatification in 1909 and her canonization in 1920. The details of the life of Jeanne d’Arc form a biography which is unique among the world’s biographies in one respect: It is the only story of a human life which comes to us under oath, the only one which comes to us from the witness-stand.

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    Default Re: Jeanne d'arc, maid of orleans: Deliverer of france

    November 9, 1429
    March 16, 1430
    March 28, 1430
    This is the first known example of Joan of Arc's signature. She is believed to have signed her name at the bottom after dictating this letter to the people of Riom:This is the second known example of Joan of Arc's signature in a reply to the people of Rheims fearing an eminent siege by the English:This is the last known example of Joan of Arc's signature in a letter dictated to the people of Rheims just months before she was captured:
    "To my dear and good friends, the men of the Church, burgesses, and inhabitants of the town of Riom

    Dear and good friends, you well know how the town of Saint-Pierre-le-Moutier was taken by assault, and with God's help I intend to clear out the other places which are against the King. But because so much powder, arrows, and other war materiel has been expended before the said town, and because myself and the lords who are at this town are so poorly provisioned for laying siege to La Charité, where we will be going shortly, I pray you, upon whatever love you have for the welfare and honor of the King and all the others here, that you will aid the siege and immediately send powder, saltpeter, sulfur, arrows, strong arbalests and other materials of war. And do this so that it will not be prolonged for lack of the said powder and other war materials, and so that no one can say that you were negligent or unwilling. Dear and good friends may Our Lord protect you.

    Written at Moulins, the ninth day of November.

    Joan"
    "To my very dear and good friends, the churchmen, burgess, and other townsmen of the town of Rheims

    Very dear and well beloved, whom I much long to see, I, Jehanne the Maid, have received your letter making mention that you fear you will be besieged. Please know that you will not be, if I can meet with them very shortly. And if it should happen that I do not meet with them and they should come before you, then shut your gates, for I shall very shortly be in your neighborhood. And if they are there I shall make them put on their spurs in such haste that they will not know where to find them, and raise the siege, if it is begun, so shortly that it will be very soon. I write no more now, except: be you ever good and loyal. I pray God to have you in his keeping.

    Written at Sully, the sixteenth day of March.

    I would send you some further news, with which you would be most joyful, but I fear this letter may be taken on the road and the said news be seen.

    Joan"
    "To my very dear and good friends the men of the Church, magistrates, bourgeois, and inhabitants and laborers of the good town of Rheims

    Very dear and good friends, may it please you to know that I have received your letters, which described how word had been brought to the king that there were many evil people in the good city of Reims. If you wish to know the truth, he was told that there were many who belonged to a conspiracy which would have betrayed the city and brought in the Burgundians. But thereafter the King well knew otherwise because you had sent him assurances. He is therefore well pleased with you. And know that you are much in his favor, and if you will have to fight, he will aid you in the event of a siege. And he well knows that you have endured much suffering from the hardships which your enemies the treasonous Burgundians have inflicted on you; so he will deliver you, if it pleases God, very soon. That is to say as soon as is feasible. I beg and require, very dear friends, that you defend well the aforesaid good city for the king and that you keep good watch. You will soon receive my good news more directly. I will not write any more for the present except to say that all of Brittany is French and the Duke must send three thousand soldiers to the King, paid for six months' service. I commend you to God, may He watch over you.

    Written at Sully on the 28th of March

    Joan"

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    Default Re: Jeanne d'arc, maid of orleans: Deliverer of france


    Joan of Arc


    When we reflect that her century was the brutalest, the wickedest, the rottenest in history since the darkest ages, we are lost in
    wonder at the miracle of such a product from such a soil. The contrast between her and her century is the contrast between day
    and night.

    She was truthful when lying was the common speech of men; she was honest when honesty was become a lost virtue; she
    was a keeper of promises when the keeping of a promise was expected of no one; she gave her great mind to great thoughts and
    great purposes when other great minds wasted themselves upon pretty fancies or upon poor ambitions; she was modest, and fine,
    and delicate when to be loud and coarse might be said to be universal; she was full of pity when a merciless cruelty was the
    rule; she was steadfast when stability was unknown, and honorable in an age which had forgotten what honor was; she was a rock of
    convictions in a time when men believed in nothing and scoffed at all things; she was unfailingly true to an age that was false to the
    core; she maintained her personal dignity unimpaired in an age of fawnings and servilities; she was of a dauntless courage when hope
    and courage had perished in the hearts of her nation; she was spotlessly pure in mind and body when society in the highest
    places was foul in both--she was all these things in an age when crime was the common business of lords and princes, and when
    the highest personages in Christendom were able to astonish even that infamous era and make it stand aghast at the spectacle of their
    atrocious lives black with unimaginable treacheries, butcheries, and beastialities.

    She was perhaps the only entirely unselfish person whose name has a place in profane history. No vestige or suggestion of
    self-seeking can be found in any word or deed of hers. When she had rescued her King from his vagabondage, and set his crown
    upon his head, she was offered rewards and honors, but she refused them all, and would take nothing.

    All she would take for herself--if the King would grant it--was leave to go back to her village home, and tend her sheep again, and
    feel her mother's arms about her, and be her housemaid and helper. The selfishness of this unspoiled general of victorious armies,
    companion of princes, and idol of an applauding and grateful nation, reached but that far and no farther





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