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Wendag
Debat oor Christendom en Godsdiens

Marcion:


Gospel of the Lord and Other Writings


Index


Marcion (left),with the Apostle John, to whom he "brought scriptures from the Pontic brethren..." (10th century miniature from the archives of the Cathedral St.Bravo in Ghent).
Marcion (left),with the Apostle John, to whom he "brought scriptures from the Pontic brethren..." (10th century miniature from the archives of the Cathedral St.Bravo in Ghent).

"O Wonder Beyond Wonders,
Rapture, Power, and Amazement is it,
That one can say nothing at all
[ About the Gospel ]
Nor even conceive of it,
Nor even compare it to anything".


- Marcion of Sinope


The entirety of The Gospel of the Lord by Marcion is presented below.  The text is divided into 6 sections, each referenced to parallel chapters in the Gospel of Luke.

The text is based on "The Gospel of the Lord" by James Hamlyn Hill (1891), which made use of the 1823 reconstruction by August Hahn. This current version is further revised by Daniel Mahar to reflect the reconstruction done by Theodor Zahn ("Geschichte des n.t. Kanons", vol.II., 1888), which places in doubt some of the material Hahn and Hill allowed into their versions.


The Gospel of the Lord:


  •     (Luke 3:1-7:50)
  •     (Luke 8:1-10:24)
  •     (Luke 10:25-13:17)
  •     (Luke 13:18-17:37)
  •     (Luke 18:1-21:38)
  •     (Luke 22:1-24:47)

Marcionites and the Unknown God



Here Phil Harland explore Marcionite forms of Christianity, which contrast significantly to the Judean forms.
Followers of Marcion believed that the legalistic God of the Hebrew Bible was to be distinguished from the loving, unknown Father-God who sent Jesus, and that Law was opposed to Gospel.


Other Writings by Marcion:


  • Marcion: To the Galatians

    From the 1887 reconstruction of Marcion's text, by C.W. Van Manen)


MARCION.-- A. D. 145.


Marcion, was born at Sinope, in the second century. He came to Rome about the year 142.

Tertullian says, the fiercest and most barbarous nations lived upon the Euxine Sea--that nothing had the glow of life there-that all things were torpid and stiff with cold - that nevertheless, nothing in Pontus was so barbarous and sad, as that Marcion was born there.

Dr. Lardner, on the authority of Jerome and Augustine - credits Marcion with being a man of letters [Lardner's works, vol. 4, p.526.] He preached and disseminated his doctrines, for twenty years; and with such success, that in the time of Epiphanius, his followers were in every nation under heaven.

The story that before he came to Rome, he had seduced a young woman, Dr. Lardner thinks an invention of Epiphanius.[Ibid. vol.4, p.59'. ] It probably originated in the fact which we learn from Jerome, that Marcion had sent before him to Rome, a woman, to prepare the minds of the people for his doctrines [ Jerome, adv. Ctesiph. t. 4, p.477. ].

Marcion is said to have rejected the Old Testament entirely; not considering it of any authority after the coming of Christ. He wrote a work entitled "Antithesis," in which he contrasted the old system with the new--the God of the one, with the God of the other--the law with the gospel. He represented Christianity as a new system, abrogating the old, and as entirely disconnected from it. The Creator of the world described in the Old Testament, [The Demi-ourgos], was different fromthe God of the new dispensation, and inferior to him. From the superior God, Jesus had come, endued with divine power, commencing with the beginning of his ministry.

He maintained the doctrine of the impurity of matter and could not therefore believe in the immaculate conception. According to Tertullian,[ Adv. Marcion, 3.8. See also de Pr. C. 33, 34.] he even denied the corporeal reality of the flesh of Christ. But this statement may be received with some allowance.

Marcion denied the resurrection of the body, and believed in the doctrine of necessity. He was afollower of Paul, and accused the other apostles of having perverted the gospel doctrines. Tertullian ingeniously endeavors to treat this accusation as aimed at the four gospels; and argues thence that they must have been in existence before Marcion. His argument, however, destroys itself; since the apostles denounced were Peter, James, and John; only one of whom has credit for writing either of the four gospels, while to the other two were attributed two of the apocryphal gospels. Marcion probably referred to the corruption of "the gospel," and not to any written books.

Marcion taught and permitted the baptizing by women. It may be inferred, also, from Epiphanius, that he did not treat with much respect those who refused them this privilege. [Adv. Har. 42.4.]



ANTITHESIS

Contradictions Between the Old Testament Diety and the New Testament God.


O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and Contradictions [antithesis] of gnosis falsley so called. - from the pseudo-Pauline epistle of I Timothy 6:20 (circ.150 C.E.).

This page represents a short exercise on my part (rather loose and by no means comprehensive)- the purpose of which is to provide a brief glimpse into Marcion's lost work, "Antithesis", which can be best described as a Marcionite commentary on the New Testament, which set forth contrasts on passages( via narrative commentary, or by the presentation of OT and NT scriptures side-by-side) between the Hebrew diety and the Alien God.

It is not certain how this work was actually arranged, whether a separate work apart from Marcion's canon, or a commentary incorporated into it. For the first part of this exercise, an attempt is made here to extract and construct from Tertullian's hostile witness (Adversus Marcionem) a Marcionite narrative, so as to allow the marcionite voice to express its views on the following three subjects:

I. The Creator God and the Supreme God,

II. The Inconsistancies of the Creator God, and

III. The Two Christs.

For the second half of this exercise, a simple side-by-side presentation of OT and NT scriptures is given, which demonstrates the contradictions between the OT Creator God and the NT Supreme God. I must emphasize that this is a loose presentation, in that I have not confined myself to citing only passages which appeared in Marcion's canon, but have made free use of other canonical material as well. In any event, this will at least provide the reader a general idea of what Marcion's work "Antithesis" may have been like.

For a further in-depth discussion on Marcion's "Antithesis", see Adolf Von Harnack's work, "Marcion: The Gospel of the Alien God" (pp.53-63; E.T. Labyrinth Press, 1990).


I. The Creator God and the Supreme God


For an evil tree bringeth forth not good fruit; neither does a good tree bring forth evil fruit. For every tree is known by his own fruit. Luke 6:43,44a

I am the Lord, and there is none else; I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil...
Isaiah 45:6,7

I create evil - This god is the author of evil - there must be another God, after the analogy of the good tree producing its good fruit. In Christ is found a different disposition, one of a simple and pure benevolence - which differs from the Creator.

In Christ a new God is revealed.

The Creator God is judicial, harsh, and mighty in war.
The Supreme God is gentle and simply good and excellent.

The title "God" is a vague one, and applied to other Beings as well; as it is written, " He standeth in the congregation of the mighty"; "He judgeth among the gods" (Psalm 82:1,6), "Ye are gods". Thus as the attribute of supremacy would be inappropriate to these, although they be called gods, so it is to the Creator.

Jesus Christ and none else revealed a new God, who, in the Old world and in the Old time and under the Old God was unknown and unheard of ; Whom is accounted by no one through long centuries back, and ancient in men's very ignorance of Him - even in ancient names He was unknown and concealed. He had remained unknown by any works from the beginning. Even the Creator was unaware of the Supreme God being above himself, Who, although He did not manifest Himself from the beginning and by means of the creation, has yet revealed Himself in Christ Jesus.

To be sure, this world is a grand work, worthy of a god. Yet the Supreme God has a creation of His own, and His own world, and His own sky. One work is sufficient for our God: He has delivered man by His supreme and most excellent goodness, which is preferable to the creation of all the locusts. A primary and perfect goodness is shed voluntarily and freely upon strangers without any obligation of friendship, on the principle that we are bidden to love our enemies, who as such on that very account are strangers to us.

The Supreme God is susceptible to no feeling of rivalry, or anger, or damage, or injury . He inflicts no punishment and takes no offence, and is not feared, as a good being ought not to be an object of fear, as a judicial being, in whom resides the grounds for fear - anger, severity, judgements, vengence, and condemnation.


II. The Inconsistencies of the Creator God


The Creator God is inconsistent, in respect of persons, sometimes disapproving where approbation is deserved; or else lacking in foresight, bestowing approbation on men who ought rather be reprobated, as if he either censured his own past judgements, or could not forecast his future ones.

With fickleness and improvidence he repented, or on some recollection of some wrong-doing, because the Creator actually says "It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king" (1 Samual 15:11), his repentence in the sense of an acknowledgement of some evil work or error. This is also the case in the matter of the Ninevites, when the Book of Jonah (3:10) states,
"And God repented of the evil that he had said he would do unto them; and he did not."

The Creator called out to Adam, "Where art thou?" as if ignorant of where Adam was; and when Adam alleged that the shame of his nakedness was the reason for hiding himself, the Creator inquired whether he had eaten of the tree, as if he were in doubt (Genesis 3:9-11).

In the case of Sodom and Gomorrha, he says "I will go down now, to see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it which is come to me; and if not, I will know"; another instance of his uncertainty in ignorance.

The Creator God was even mean enough in his very fierceness, when, in his wrath against the people for their consecration of the golden calf, he makes this request to Moses: "Let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make thee a great nation" (Exodus 32:10). Moses is better than his God, as the deprecatur and indeed, the averter of his anger, "For Thou shalt not do this; or else destroy me along with them" (Exodus 32:32).


III. The Two Christs


The Christ who in the days of Tiberius was, by a previously unknown God, revealed for the salvation of all nations, is a different being from him who was ordained by the Creator God for the restoration of the Jewish state, and who is yet to come.

The Creator's Christ is to be a warrior, a bearer of arms, and mighty in war.
The Christ of the Good God, who has come, is a far different being from the Creator's Christ.

Isaiah's description of Christ in no point suits the Christ of the Good God. Isaiah's Christ is to be called Emmanuel (Isaiah 7:14); then, he takes the riches of Damascus and the spoils of Samaria against the king of Assyria (Isaiah 8:4). But yet, He who is come was neither born under such a name, nor ever engaged in such a war-like enterprise.

A Christ had come who had never been foreannounced, but the Christ predicted had not yet appeared. The Jews were themselves quite certain that it was some other who came; so they not only rejected Him as a stranger, but slew Him as an enemy, though they would have acknowledged Him, and with all religious devotion followed Him, if He had been one of them.

The difference between the two Christs, is that the Jewish Christ was ordained by the Creator for the restoration of the people alone from its dispersion,
while our Christ was appointed by the supremely Good God for the liberation of the whole human race.
Who among the nations can turn to the Creator, when those whom the prophets name are proselytes of individually different and private conditions?

It is the Christ of the Other, Supreme God Who was driven to the cross by the hostile powers and authorities of the Creator. The suffering of the cross was not predicted of the Creator's Christ; moreover, it should not be believed that the Creator would expose his son to that kind of death on which he himself had pronounced a curse. "Cursed" says he, "is everyone who hangeth on a tree" (Deuteronomy 21:3, Galatians 3:13).


The CREATOR GOD
of this World

And out of the ground the Lord Yahweh made every tree to grow...the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Gen.2:9; 3:1ff.

And the Lord Yahweh called unto Adam, and said unto him, "Where art thou?" Genesis 3:9


Eye for an eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot... Exodus 21:24

And Elijah answered and said to the captain of fifty, If I be a man of God, then let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty. And there came down fire from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty. 2 Kings 1:9 - 10

...there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him [Elisha]...and [he] cursed them in the name of the Lord. And there came forth two she-bears out of the wood, and tare forty two children of them. 2 Kings 2:23-24

And if a woman have issue, and if her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put apart seven days; whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even... and if a woman have an issue of her blood ...beyond the time of her separation, ...she shall be unclean.

When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house. Deuteronomy 24:1

Psalm 21:12 Therefore shalt thou make them turn their back, when thou shalt make ready thine arrows upon thy strings against the face of them (Psalm 21:12).Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; and he shot out lightnings, and discomfited them. (Psalm 18:4) Clouds and darkness are round about him... (97:2a) He sent darkness, and made it dark...(Psalm 105a).He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil angels among them (Psalm 78:49).

I form light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord Yahweh do all these things ( Isaiah 45:7). Do they not err that devise evil? (Proverbs 14:22a)


I the Lord your God am a jealous God (Exodus 20:5)....for the Lord, Whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God (Exodus 34:14).

He is a Jealous God; He will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins. If you forsake the Lord, then He will turn and do you hurt, and consume you... (Joshua 24:13,14) For I the Lord God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the third and fourth generation of them that hate me (Exodus 20:5).

I am Yahweh, that is my name- And my glory to another will I not give... (Isaiah 42:8)

And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies...for the Lord fought for Israel. (Joshua 10:12-14)

Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive: Thou hast received tribute from men. (Psalm 68:18)




The GOOD GOD
Revealed by Christ

"For a corrupt tree bringeth forth not good fruit; neither does a good tree bringeth forth corrupt fruit." (Luke 6:43)

["Either make the tree good, and its fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and its fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by its fruit." Mt.12:33]

But when Jesus perceived their thoughts, He answering said unto them, "Why do you reason in your hearts?" (Luke 5:22)

And unto him that smiteth thee on the cheek offer also the other... (Luke 6:29)

[Jesus' disciples] :"Lord, wilt Thou that we command fire to comedown from heaven, and consume them, even as Elijah did?" But He turned and rebuked them, and said, "Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of ; for the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them" (Luke 9:54,55

And they brought young children to Him...and His disciples rebuked those that brought them. But Jesus ...said unto them "Allow the little children to come to Me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God." (Mark 10:13,14)


And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living on physicians, neither could be healed of any, came up behind [Jesus], and touched the border of His garment: and immediately her issue of blood ceased. ...she shall be unclean. (Luke 8:43,44)

Whosoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her (Mk 10:11). Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to put away your wives: but from the beginning this was not so. (Matthew 19:8)

Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that you may be able to withstand the evil one...taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery arrows of the wicked (Ephesians 6:16). For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this Aeon, against spiritual wickedness in high places. (Ephesians 6:12)

God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all (1 John 1:5b) God is love (1 John 4:16); [Love] thinketh no evil (1 Corinthians 13:5)

Love knows no jealousy... (1 Corinthians 13:4)


Love is never rude, never irritated, never resentful (1 Corinthians 13:5) Then came Peter to Him, and said, "Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Until seven times?" Jesus said to him, "I say not to you, until seven times: but, until seventy times seven." (Matthew 18:23-22)


And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with thine own self with the glory I had with Thee before the world was. (John 17:5)


Be ye angry, yet not committing sin; Let not the sun be going down upon your wrath. (Ephesians 4:26)


Wherefore He saith, "When He ascended on high, He led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men." (Ephesians 4:8)




Marcion

Marcion

Marcion het teenstrydighede tussen die Ou en Nuwe Testament gelys om te bewys dat die God van die Jode, “die skepper van hierdie ellendige wêreld,” heel anders was as die God en Vader van Jesus. Sy verklaring dat die God van die Ou Testament die outeur was van die bose, onderdrukkende en 'n mindere en onderskeibare entiteit van die God van die Nuwe Testament was wat liefde en vergifnis getoon het.

Marcion het beweer dat die Ou Testament geen verband met die Christen het nie. Sy lys het die meestal van Paulus se geskrifte bevat asook 'n gedeelte van Lukas. Volgens hom het die twaalf apostels nie die insig gehad om die ware betekenis van Jesus te begryp nie.